Italian painting has been very present for many centuries and especially during the Renaissance: this profusion of Italian painters is due to the large number of artistic movements and schools of painting which developed since the Renaissance.
Many schools of painting developed independently of each other during the Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance, like for example the Florentine school, the Venetian school or the Roman school. We also more often talk about schools of painting rather than artistic movements.
Italian painters generally came from lines of descent painters such as the Carraccis, the Gandolfis or even the Bellinis.
The Byzantine Art corresponds to the Pre-Renaissance: it lasted until the middle of the 14th Century. Then the Renaissance saw the emergence of several artistic movements: firstly with the Early Renaissance, then with the High Renaissance and finally with the late Renaissance. At the end of the 15th Century, the late Renaissance gave away to the Baroque. The period of Neoclassicism roughly corresponded to the movement of Rococo, from the first half of the 18th Century.
The list of Italian artists is very long. We can cite for example Duccio, Martini and Lorenzotti for the period of the Pre-Renaissance. The Renaissance period is that of the greatest Italian artists like Da Vinci, Botticelli, Perugino, Michelangelo, Titian, Vernonese or even Bernini. But more recently, other Italian artists continued to paint during the 18th Century like Tiepolo, Canaletto or even Carriera.
Closer to us, there are also many Italian artists during the 20th Century, as Monbrini, Zevola and Lauricella if we had to mention only three of them.