Surrealism is an art movement but also a cultural and literary mouvement dating from the early 20th Century. Surrealism is based on the expression of dreams, the unconscious, and the automation.
André Breton wrote in 1924 the Surrealist Manifesto in which he defined Surrealism as a "pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express (...) the real functioning of thought". Surrealism advocates the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations.
The 19th Century sees the emergence of Surrealism: Gérard de Nerval invented Super naturalism, Emanuel Swedenborg invented Surnaturalism, Baudelaire and Malarme Symbolism and finally Jean Paul and Hoffmann invented Romanticism. All these artistic trends prefigured Surrealism which became one of the greatest artistic movements of the 20th Century.
But Surrealism was mainly derived from Dadaism, a movement founded in 1916 and which challenged all ideological and aesthetic conventions. Dali even thought that Surrealism would change the world.
The term Surrealism was used for the first time by Guillaume Apollinaire in a letter to Paul Dermée. Surrealism quickly spread internationally, especially in Belgium and throughout the overseas French-speaking countries. Surrealism became a global phenomenon, Japanese painters seize this artistic movement such as Koga, Kitawaki or even Yamamoto.